09 November 2018

Lisensamentu Ambientál – hodi proteje ita hotu

Hanesan valór kulturál ne’ebé iha dezde tempu bei'ala sira, ita Timoroan rekoñese relasaun xave entre ema nia moris, animal sira, no ita nia ambiente naturál. Proteje Timor-Leste nia ambiente ne’ebé frajil mak importante tebes ba dezenvolvimentu nasionál no hodi hadi’a kualidade moris povu nian. Ambiente mak fó oportunidade ba ita atu halo natar, han, hemu, halo ita nia atividade peska no simu ár fresku no bele dada iis. Se ita husik ita nia rikusoin natural hetan estraga, sei rezulta problema hamlaha, bee-sa’e (diluvia), poluisaun, fo’er venenozu/tóksiku no hada’et moras oioin. Ne’e hetan rekoñese iha Artigu 61 husi Konstituisaun Timor-Leste:
  1. Ema hotu-hotu iha direitu atu moris iha ambiente ema moris nian ne’ebé moos, nabelun-di’ak ho natureza, no iha obrigasaun atu proteje no halo di’ak ba jerasaun loron ikus nian.
  2. Estadu rekoñese katak iha nesesidade atu tau matan didi’ak no fó valór ba ita-nia rain nia riku-soin.
  3. Estadu tenke fó-sai buat ne’ebé mak sei halo atu defende natureza maibé sei hodi hala’o mós nia ekonomia.
Hanesan Planu Dezenvolvimentu Estratéjiku 2011-2030 esplika, “Povu Timor-Leste iha relasaun forte tebes ho nia meiu ambiente naturál. Husi jerasaun ba jerasaun, ita-nia bei-ala sira depende ba ambiente hodi asegura ai-han, roupa, materiál hodi harii edifísiu sira no buat hotu ne’ebé esensiál ba moris. Ita hela iha armonia ho ambiente, ho uza nia iha dalan sustentável hodi suporta ita-nia família sira.”

Hodi atinje objetivu sira-ne’e, no atu proteje Timor-Leste nia jeolojia no sistema ekolójiku (rikusoin ambientál) ne’ebé úniku (la iha ida seluk hodi troka), projetu dezenvolvimentu sira ho risku signifikante ba ambiente presiza hetan avaliasaun no lisensamentu molok sira implementa, inklui avaliasaun ba impaktu sira ne’ebé iha posibilidade ba ambiente no oinsá halo planu hodi jere risku sira, durante faze konstrusaun no mós faze operasaun nian. Iha tinan 2011, Timor-Leste estabelese ona ninia Dekretu-Lei kona-ba lisensamentu ambientál, no molok ida ne’e, iha lei AMDAL Indonézia nian ne’ebé aplika. Maski nune’e, ladún iha informasaun ba públiku kona-ba prosesu lisensamentu ba projetu dezenvolvimentu sira – liuliu projetu sira ho risku boot ba ambiente - ne’ebé estabelese ona iha tinan hitu liubá. To’o projetu barak mak opera maibé sira ignora obrigasaun legal sira atu aplika.

RDTL nia Dekretu-Lei no. 5/2011, 9 Fevreiru ba Lisensamentu Ambientál (Portugés orijinál ka Inglés) obriga proponente projetu sira ne’ebé hamosu impaktu signifikante ba ambiente atu prepara Avaliasaun Impaktu Ambientál (EIA - Environmental Impact Assessment) no Planu Jestaun Ambientál (EMP - Environment Management Plan - Art.4). Autoridade Ambientál Superiór, agora Sekretáriadu Estadu ba Ambiente (SEA) kria komité (Art. 10) atu avalia proposta EIA no EMP, hala’o konsultasaun públiku (Art. 11), no obriga atu hadi’ak (Art. 12.3, 14.3) molok halo rekomendasaun (Art.13) no emite lisensa (Art.14). Hanesan hakerek iha La’o Hamutuk nia karta aberta ba Primeiru Ministru iha fulan-Setembru, ami kontra MPM (Ministériu Petróleu no Mineirus) bele emite lisensa ambientál sira ba projetu iha setór petróleu no mineiru tanba eziste konflitu interese. Artigu ida-ne’e sei fahe informasaun kona-ba dezafiu no prosesu sira ba implementasaun lisensamentu ambientál iha Timor-Leste.

Tuir lei, la bele hahú implementa konstrusaun projetu sein lisensa (Art.23.5); multa ba sira ne’ebé la tuir lei ne’e bele to’o dolar rihun atus-rua lima-nulu ($250,000) (Art.34.5). Lisensa sira (ho rekerimentu espesiál sira ka mós razaun se la emite lisensa) tenke publika iha Jornal da República (Art.14.4, 21.4) no Autoridade Ambientál Superiór tenke mantein rejistu públiku ba lisensa no avaliasaun sira ho informasaun seluk (Art. 38).

Maski Dekretu-Lei ne’e la perfeitu, nia bele ajuda proteje Timor-Leste nia ambiente no rikusoin sira. Maibé atu halo ida ne’e, lei ne’e presiza implementa ho di’ak. La’o Hamutuk preokupa tebes katak projetu boot barak la’o kleur ona maibé seidauk tuir prosesu lei Lisensamentu Ambientál no mós seidauk iha sansaun multa hanesan lei haruka. Tuir lei, edifísiu sira ne’ebé andár liu nivel 2, iha rai ho tamañu ektare 2 ka liu konsidera nu’udar kategoria A, ne’ebé iha impaktu ambientál boot no iha rekizitu espesiál hodi proteje ambiente no komunidade lokál nia interese. Maibé to’o ohin loron maski konstrusaun sira remata ona, projetu barak mak seidauk halo aplikasaun ruma atu hetan lisensamentu ambientál husi SEA. Proponente sira ne’e mak hanesan: Aeroportu Oecusse, Timor Plaza (Comoro), no Edifísiu Ministériu Finansas (Kampung Alor). Ami enkoraja ema hotu ne’ebé iha informasaun kona-ba projetu sira seluk ne’ebé tuir loloos tenke iha lisensa ambientál (kritéria iha Dekretu-Lei nia anexu) atu fó-hatene SEA kona-ba situasaun ne’e. Aleinde Lei Lisensamentu Ambientál, Diploma Ministerial sira esplika kle’an kona-ba prosesu lisensamentu nian, no bainhira projetu sira la tuir prosesu loloos, ita hotu iha direitu no devér atu lori kazu ne’e ba instituisaun kompetente sira: SEA, PDHJ no Ministériu Públiku.

Haree ba kotuk, iha Marsu 2014 La’o Hamutuk hetan informasaun husi Autoridade Ambientál Superiór tempu ne’ebá katak sira sei halo prosesu aplikasaun ba projetu 5 no emite lisensa tiha ona ba projetu 11, inklui 2 husi kategoria A: Projetu Pelican Paradise iha Tasi Tolu no Suai Supply Base (SSB), ne’ebé rua-rua abandona konstrusaun to’o lisensa mate no agora iha prosesu hela atu renova no hetan fali. Tuir dokumentu 2014 nian, SSB hetan lisensa ambientál liuhosi “interferénsia polítika”.  [Link to English blog from 2014.]
Iha Maiu 2016, La’o Hamutuk hakerek karta ba Provedór Direitus Umanus no Justisa (PDHJ) husu atu Provedoria bele kolabora ho Autoridade Superior Ambientál no instituisaun estadu seluk atu halo investigasaun no intervensaun ba proponente projetu sira ne’ebé la kumpre Dekretu-Lei Lisensamentu Ambientál atu bele asegura injustisa labele kontinua akontese no mós proteje ema vulneravel sira nia direitus umanus. Durante tinan 2 ho balun ona, La’o Hamutuk seidauk hetan resposta husi PDHJ kona-ba karta ida-ne’e.

Iha Fevreiru 2018, La’o Hamutuk halo pedidu no hetan dokumentu lubuk husi prosesu aplikasaun ba lisensa ambientál, inklui tabela ba projetu boot (kategoria A no kategoria B) ne’ebé hetan lisensa ona no tabela ba sira ne’ebé sei iha prosesu atu hetan lisensa. Bele haree iha tabela tolu tuirmai ne’e parte husi informasaun ne’e. Tuir dokumentu sira, Diresaun Nasionál ba Kontrolu Poluisaun no Impaktu Ambientál (DNCPIA), ne’ebé iha SEA nia okos, fó ona lisensa 38, inklui 6 ba projetu kategoria A nian, no iha aplikasaun 48 ne’ebé sei iha prosesu.
La’o Hamutuk mós hetan lista projetu sira (iha munisípiu 12) ne’ebé tama prosesu investigasaun ho hetan karta notifikasaun hanesan ezemplu iha liman loos.

La’o Hamutuk observa progresu iha SEA nia kapasidade atu implementa Dekretu-Lei Lisensamentu Ambientál, maibé ami rekoñese katak sira mós iha limitasaun rekursu umanu no tékniku. Tuir loloos, sira sei publika lisensa no dokumentu relevante hotu ba públiku, maibé sira nia sítiu-web la funsiona agora hodi fornese informasaun ba públiku. Ho situasaun ida-ne’e, no kooperasaun di’ak ne’ebé hetan husi parte SEA no DNCPIA, La’o Hamutuk sei ajuda fahe dokumentu sira iha ami-nia sítiu-web hodi apoiu halo prosesu lisensamentu ambientál transparente.
Projetu sira kategoria ‘A’ nian ne’ebé hetan ona lisensa ambientál
Projetu sira kategoria ‘A’ balu ne’ebé sei iha prosesu lisensamentu
Projetu sira Kategoria ‘A’ seidauk hahú prosesu lisensamentu
GLOSÁRIU

SEA – Sekretáriadu Estadu ba Ambiente

DNCPIA – Diresaun Nasionál Controlu Poluisaun no Impaktu Ambientál, iha SEA nia kraik

TOR – ‘Terms of Reference iha lia-inglés; Nota ba Referénsia. Dokumentu ida-ne’e deskreve kona-ba estudu ambientál nia konteúdu, tópiku, objetivu no limitasaun, no dokumentu ida-ne’e tenke hetan aprovasaun husi DNCPIA antes hahú estudu hodi dezenvolve DIA no PJA.

DIA – Deklarasaun Impaktu Ambientál (Ingles: EIS – Environmental Impact Statement). Dokumentu ne’e hetan prepara husi proponent projetu, bazeia ba estudu tékniku, ho partisipasaun públiku, hodi deskreve iha Sumáriu projetu ho ninia impaktu posivel – di’ak no aat – no oinsá bele evita ka minimiza impaktu negativu sira.

PJA – Planu Jestaun Ambientál (Ingles: EMP – Environmental Management Plan). Dokumentu ida-ne’e deskreve proponente projetu nia planu kona-ba oinsá hamenus impaktu negativu ba ambiente no komunidade lokál durante prosesu konstrusaun no operasaun.

Ektare = 10,000 m²

Mina = Fatin ba halo estrasaun (ke'e no foti sai) fatuk-murak

Mina rai = Petroleu iha forma likidu
La’o Hamutuk preokupa tebes katak investor no kompañia sira-ne’ebé to’o ohin loron sei kontinua ignora hodi implementa obrigasaun legal sira, dezenvolve sira nia projetu no hetan lukru boot sein sansaun ruma. Dili Development Company, Lda ho nia Jestór Jerál Tony Jape, dezenvolve ona Timor Plaza no mós ho planu atu konstrui edifísiu barak tan besik Timor Plaza no dezenvolve fatin tasi ibun nian balu iha Dili, maibé nunka aplika ba lisensa ambientál. Projetu sira liga ba ZEESM Oe-cusse hanesan Aeroportu Oecusse, Ponte Noefefan (Tono) no konstrusaun irrigasaun (Tono) mós nunka aplika ba lisensa ambientál.

Durante tinan 16 iha Timor-Leste nia independénsia, no dékada hirak antes, Timor-Leste seidauk iha protesaun ambientál ne’ebé efetivu. Maski ami agradese servisu husi SEA nia programa sira kona-ba oinsá atu jere soe lixu ne’ebé di’ak no kuda ai-oan sira, ami haree ameasa ne’ebé perigu liu ba ita nia ambiente agora mak husi konstrusaun boot no projetu industriál sira, ne’ebé uza kímiku venenu ho kuantidade boot tebes ne’ebé ameasa saúde no bele kontamina iha ita-nia sistema ekolójiku mota nian, bee matan, rai agríkola, tasi no ár.

Ami espera katak Governu Timor-Leste sei servisu ho efetivu liután hodi halo protesaun no seguransa ba ita-nia meiu-ambiente liuliu rai no bee, hodi bele seguru, moos, di’ak ba povu nia moris, no haforsa matenek lokál hanesan Tara Bandu atu proteje sira nia área lokál. Ita-nia Governu no projetu-na’in sira presiza hatudu sistema servisu ne’ebé transparénsia (loke dokumentu estudu no planu sira hotu ba públiku), halo konsultasaun ho povu, no halo forte liután implementasaun lei sira ne’ebé vigora iha Timor-Leste.

La’o Hamutuk hatene katak protesaun loloos ba ambiente presiza ita hotu nia atensaun no asaun. Ita hotu presiza tau matan ba prosesu ida-ne’e tanba só hamutuk, ita bele proteje Rai Furak ida-ne’e ohin no futuru oin mai.

04 November 2018

Planeamentu Familiar ida Inkluzivu La’ós iha Surat-Tahan De’it

Planeamentu familiar hanesan direitu umanu báziku ba ema ida-idak atu determina ho livre no responsabilidade bainhira mak sira hakarak oan, no oan hira mak sira hakarak. Importante atu asegura katak planeamentu familiar ne’e inklusivu, katak involve sidadaun hotu la haree ba jéneru, kaben ka lae, idade, orientasaun sexual no relijiaun. Planeamentu familiar hanesan aspetu ida husi saúde reprodutivu, ne’ebé konsiste husi:
  • Prevensaun HIV/SIDA;
  • Prevensaun no tratamentu ba moras hada’et liuhosi relasaun seksuál ka MHRS;
  • Kuidadu antes no depois de partu;
  • Edukasaun seksuál no akonsellamentu, liuliu ba foin-sa’e sira.
Ukun na’in balu haree planeamentu familiar husi perspetiva ekonomia de’it, no balun konklui katak implementasaun planeamentu familiar ida-ne’ebé di’ak bele hatún neineik kreximentu populasaun, aumenta saláriu no PIB (Produtu Internu Brutu ka GDP). Maibé kuandu la haree planeamentu familiar nudár direitu umanu no análiza haree tuir perspetiva ekonomia nian de’it perigozu tebes hanesan bele haree husi istória balu iha Timor-Leste nia pasadu ne’ebé hatudu “planeamentu familiar” uza uluk nudár meiu obrigasaun ida atu kontrola populasaun iha tempu Indonézia. Ohin loron, Timor-Leste nasaun independente ona no Konstituisaun artigu 57 garante saúde universál no gratuita ba sidadaun ida-idak.  Atu halo tuir promesa ida ne’e, Timor-Leste tenke fornese ba feto no mane timoroan hotu rekursu no informasaun hodi bele tetu no deside ho matenek kona-ba sira nia saúde no sira nia isin-lolon.

La’o Hamutuk fiar katak planeamentu familiar presiza iha diskusaun ne’ebé nakloke sem limitasaun. Se diskusaun ne’e limite de’it ba asuntu ekonomia, ita karik bele haluha no esklui katak, planeamentu familiar nia baze fundamentu mak atu fó espasu ba ema ida-idak liuliu feto sira hodi halo desizaun ba sira-nia isin-lolon rasik.

Artigu ida ne’e sei diskute kona-ba importánsia husi planeamentu familiar iha Timor-Leste, nia polítika, bareira implementasaun no rekomendasaun iha futuru.

Planeamentu Familiar Importante ba Timor-Leste ka lae?

Foin daudaun diskusaun kona-ba planeamentu familiar hetan atensaun no diskute iha públiku. Planeamentu familiar nudár rekomendasaun importante ne’ebé fó husi Relatóriu Nasionál Dezenvolvimentu Umanu 2018, ne’ebé antisipa katak bainhira ema barak uza planeamentu familiar, númeru dezempregu sei tun, investimentu ema ida-idak nian no PIB sei sa’e, no feto sira moris aumenta naruk. Dadus relatóriu husi Peskiza Demográfiku no Saúde (Demographic and Health Survey - DHS) inklui kona-ba ema hira mak uza planeamentu familiar, no métodu saida mak sira uza, no ema hira mak hakarak hetan asesu ba planeamentu familiar. No mós, iha Juñu 2018, Prezidente RDTL nia kaben Cidalia Lopes Nobre Mouzinho Guterres diskute kona-ba importánsia husi planeamentu familiar iha eskala internasionál. 

Planeamentu familiar oferese kondisaun ba dezenvolvimentu ida sustentável no inkluzivu. Planeamentu familiar ne’ebé inkluzivu sei promove saúde materna no saúde infantíl, hakbiit feto sira, hasa’e nivel edukasaun, no hamenus HIV/AIDS nia da’et. No mós, sei aumenta benefísiu ekonómiku hanesan aumenta uma-kain ida nia rendimentu. Timor-Leste hanesan nasaun foin-sa’e ida - 35% husi nia populasaun iha idade entre 15-35 - no planeamentu familiar sei fornese futuru ida sira bele hili rasik ne’ebé di’ak liu.

Governu Timor-Leste iha obrigasaun bazeia ba Konstituisaun RDTL atu proteje no kuida sidadaun hotu, la haree ba jéneru, estadu sivíl, relijiaun, ka orientasaun sexual. Maske nune’e iha implementasaun husi Polítika Planeamentu Familiar atuál seidauk inklui ema hotu, dala barak implementasaun sei diskrimina foin-sae, ema hela iha area rural no feto ne’ebé seidauk kazál ka laiha katuas oan. Planeamentu familiar tenke progresivu no inkluzivu iha pratika, la’ós iha surat-tahan de’it.

Planeamentu Familiar Atuál no nia Implementasaun

Timor-Leste adopta Polítika Planeamentu Familiar Nasionál ida iha 2004, no La’o Hamutuk konsidera polítika ida ne’e inkluzivu no progresivu. Polítika ida-ne’e dezenvolve husi rezultadu konsulta no debate públiku, ne’ebé konsiste husi lideransa husi parte saúde sira, setór seluk iha governu, no mós lideransa parte relijiozu sira. Polítika atuál ida-ne’e dehan katak, servisu planeamentu familiár tenke “integra hamutuk ho servisu saúde reprodutivu no halo iha instituisaun saúde nian hotu atu nune’e ema hotu bele hetan asesu ho di’ak no efetivu.” Polítika ne’e mós deklara katak fasilidade saúde hotu tenke prove servisu reprodutivu no akonsellumentu, no “tenke inklui mós informasaun kompleta no loloos kona-ba métodu hotu-hotu, atu nune’e ita bele garante katak ema ida-idak hili tanba nia hatene no tanba nia hakarak no ho konxiénsia rasik.” Informasaun ne’e tenke fahe ba sidadaun sira, la haree ba idade, estadu sivíl ka jéneru.

Ohin loron implementasaun husi polítika ida-ne’e di’ak liu kompara ho tinan 14 liubá, maske nune’e sei iha dezafiu barak. Tuir dadus DHS 2016, feto 16.1% idade 15-49 uza ona métodu ruma husi planeamentu familiar, maske nune’e relatóriu ne’e bazeia ba saida mak feto sira dehan ba ema ne’ebé halo entrevista, no karik ema balu moe atu fahe informasaun privadu ho ema ne’ebé sira la koñese. Gráfiku iha okos hatudu katak, sona (injesaun) no implante hanesan métodu kontrasepsaun ne’ebé uza liu.

Laiha métodu planeamentu familiar ida mak perfeitu ba ema hotu, tanba métodu ida-idak mai ho nia benefísiu no risku; tan ne’e, La’o Hamutuk fiar katak ema hotu-hotu presiza hetan informasaun ne’ebé kompletu kona-ba meiu kontrasepsaun oioin. Agora daudaun métodu dominante liu mak sona no implante; ne’e hatudu katak ema barak mak seidauk hatene ka iha asesu ba métodu no opsaun seluk. Relatóriu DHS hatete katak maizumenus feto ida entre feto na’in neen iha Timor-Leste mak uza kontrasepsaun. No feto hirak ne’e besik 50% mak deside uza métodu sona, no dehan katak sira deside uza molok hatene kle’an kona-ba nia risku (efek samping) sira ne’ebé bele mosu, saida mak sira bele halo bainhira esperiénsia efek samping, no karik iha meiu seluk atu bele uza.

Tuir dadus husi DHS, persentajen ema uza kondom menus tebes, ho 0.6% husi totál ema ne’ebé responde fó sasin katak sira uza kondom Ida ne’e la’ós surpreza boot ida, bainhira ita haree katak diskusaun kona-ba kondom sai nudár stigma no sosiedade la suporta. Planeamentu familiar ida ne’ebé saudavel presiza tebes meiu ida justu hodi fahe responsabilidade entre mane no feto no indivíduu sira.

Alende ne’e, parese servisu saúde ba vasektomi seidauk implementa iha Timor-Leste, tanba menus ekipamentu no ema ne’ebé iha presiza kapasidade espesífiku, maibé ema ho knaar no kapasidade ida-ne’e menus liu. Métodu vasektomi mak métodu planeamentu familiar nian ne’ebé seguru, simples no efetivu. Planeamentu Familiar asuntu ida ba mane ho feto, no ita labele tau todan de’it ba feto no fó fatin liu ba ema hirak halo polítika atu haluha katak importante tebes atu inklui feto nia direitu atu foti desizaun.

Maske Timor-Leste nia Polítika Planeamentu Familiar temi liafuan inkluzivu, maibé foin-sa’e, hirak ne’ebé seidauk kaben, no feto rurál sira, dala barak seidauk bele hetan asesu ba servisu saúde reprodutivu sira. Bazeia ba DHS, liu 33% husi feto hirak ne’ebé seidauk kaben fó sasin katak sira hakarak uza planeamentu familiar maibé só 50% husi feto hirak ne’e mak bele hetan asesu.

DHS nia relatóriu importante ne’ebé haktuir relatóriu global DHS nian, fó sai de’it númeru feto kaben na’in no sira nia nesesidade ba planeamentu familiár, maske nune’e importante tebes ba relatóriu DHS ne’ebé iha influensia boot atu tau importánsia no aprezenta númeru feto hirak ne’ebé seidauk kaben nia nesesidade ba planeamentu familiar atu halakon stigma kontra feto hirak ne’e. Alende ne’e Sensus mós presiza aumenta planeamentu familiar nudár komponente iha kestionáriu sira, atu nune’e ita bele hetan estatístika kompleta kona-ba planeamentu familiar iha Timor-Leste laran tomak.

Obstákulu ba Planeamentu Familiar

Timoroan ida-idak iha direitu atu deside meiu planeamentu familiar saida de’it mak perfeitu ba nia. Tan ne’e, ema hotu presiza simu informasaun adekuadu kona-ba benefísiu no risku husi métodu planeamentu familiar hotu. Maske nune’e, sosiedade balun iha Timor-Leste nafatin fó podér ba mane sira iha relasaun, no limita feto sira nia abilidade atu foti desizaun ba sira nia an. Iha tinan hirak liubá, iha peskiza rua ne’ebé hatudu realidade problema ida-ne’e: ida kona-ba atitude mane sira nian liga ho asuntu jéneru no ida seluk kona-ba violénsia kontra feto. Peskiza sira-ne’e konfirma katak sosiedade (mane no feto), kontinua iha fiar forte katak mane mak halo desizaun di'ak liu iha família nia laran; fiar ida-ne’e kontinua husi mane no feto to’o agora. Ita presiza enkoraja no promove kultura ida ne’ebé hakbiit feto no luta kontra kultura hirak ne’ebé hatún feto. Ne’e mak pasu importante ida hodi fornese planeamentu familiar iha nasaun tomak.

Kampaña Igreja Katólika nian no instituisaun seluk dala barak foka de’it ba métodu planeamentu ne’ebé tradisionál. Maske nune’e iha realidade, kampaña hirak ne’e seidauk konvense feto barak atu uza métodu ne’ebé refere (haree iha gráfiku). Ida ne’e la’ós surpreza ida tanba atu uza métodu tradisionál efetivamente presiza feto sira bele lee no halo kalkulasaun aritmétika, atu komprende kle’an kona-ba sira nia isin no sistema reprodutivu; sira nia parseiru seksuál mós presiza nakloke atu diskute no komunika ho suporta, ida ne’ebé dala barak la eziste iha família barak nia realidade.

Maske nune’e, maioria joven no foin-sa’e sira hetan informasaun limitadu tebes kona-ba saúde reprodutivu, nune’e labele kompriende loloos saúde seksuál ka foti desizaun ba sira nia isin-lolon bazeia ba informasaun kompletu. Porezemplu, tuir dadus husi DHS, 23% husi joven feto no 20% husi joven mane dehan katak sira simu informasaun  kona-ba saúde reprodutivu. Aléinde ne’e. 47% husi feto no 66% husi mane idade 15-49 mak rona tiha ona kona-ba HIV/SIDA. Mezmu nune’e profesór sira no inan aman sira evita atu diskute kona-ba tópiku ne’e tanba sente moe. Maske edukasaun seksuál iha ona eskola nia kurríkulu, dala barak mak mestre sira hakat liu tiha. Tan ne’e joven barak la hatene oinsá atu prevene isin rua ka hatene oinsá trata moras hada’et liu husi relasaun seksuál.

Rekomendasaun Espesífiku ba VIII Governu

Tinan oinmai, Governu Timor-Leste sei hato’o ninia relatóriu periódika dahaat ba Komité kona-ba Halakon Diskriminasaun hasoru Feto (CEDAW). Relatóriu ikus ba CEDAW, husi tinan 2015, fó rekomendasaun tuirmai ba Governu Timor-Leste:
“Haforsa maneira hodi asegura feto joven hotu, inklui feto adolexente no rurál, hetan asesu ba servisu saúde seksuál, reprodutivu no emerjénsia nian, no hadi’ak kualidade servisu planeamentu familiar…la haree ba status kaben.”
Bazeia ba ida-ne’e, ami hato’o rekomendasaun espesífiku tuirmai ba Governu:
  • Kontinua no haforsa implementasaun Polítika Nasionál Planeamentu Familiar 2004 nian, hodi buat di’ak iha surat-tahan bele atualiza iha pratika. Planeamentu Familiar la mensiona iha programa Governu VIII nian. Ami husu Governu atu prioritiza Planeamentu Familiar, no inklui iha programa no planu sira iha futuru, nudár kondisaun nesesária atu atinje golu sira iha Planu Estratéjiku Nasionál ba Saúde 2011-2030, ne’ebé koko atu “aumentu asesu no servisu sira ne’ebé ho kualidade aas ba ante-natais, partu, asisténsia pos-natal no Planeamentu Familiar, inklui fatin ne'ebé difisil atu asesu”.

  • Alokasaun Orsamentu Estadu 2018 ba “Saúde Materna no Servisu Saúde Materna inklui Planeamentu Familiar” mak $43,000, ne’ebé ko’a tiha ba sorin balun kompara ho orsamentu 2017. La’o Hamutuk enkoraja Governu atu aumenta alokasaun ne’e iha orsamentu 2019, espesifikamente ba asuntu Planeamentu Familiar no nia informasaun sira. Inklui mós programa detallu no espesífiku kona-ba Planeamentu Familiar iha Ministériu Saúde nia Planu Asaun. Governu nia Programa, no Orsamentu, Governu mós tenke asegura katak lideransa ne’ebé adekuadu, planu no orsamentu hodi nune’e asegura implementasaun husi polítika importante ida ne’e.

  • Ministériu Saúde presiza investe ba ho fornesimentu informasaun ba ofisiál saúde sira, kapasitasaun no rekursu sira ne’ebé presiza atu asegura informasaun no opsaun kompletu ba Timoroan hotu, mane ka feto, kaben-na’in ka seidauk kaben, nurak ka idade, hela iha sidade ka foho. Presiza atensaun espesiál ida mós ba promove partisipasaun mane iha responsabilidade ba uza kontrasepsaun (inklui kondom no vasektomi), no mós kontinua eduka mane sira atu iha obrigasaun relasiona ho planeamentu familiar.  Ministériu presiza asegura implementasaun husi polítika ida ne’ebé labele diskrimina ema ida.

  • Ministériu Saúde, Ministériu Edukasaun, Juventude no Desportu, no Komisaun Nasionál ba Kombate HIV/AIDS presiza asegura mensajen no diskusaun públiku kona-ba planeamentu familiar sempre inkluzivu, pozitivu, no suporta direitu ema hotu nian. Objetivu mak atu hakbiit ema hotu atu nune’e bele iha responsabilidade ba desizaun ba sira nia saúde individuál no familiar, bazeia ba informasaun ne’ebé loloos no klaru. 

  • Ministériu Edukasaun no Ministériu Saúde presiza kontinua kolaborasaun importante ne’ebé sira hahú ona atu asegura edukasaun kona-ba saúde reprodutivu bele hanorin iha eskola sira, mestre sira iha mandatu, konfiansa ba an, bele ezekuta atu diskute tópiku hirak ne’e ho estudante sira.

Konkluzaun

Maioria Timoroan lubuk ida, feto no mane seidauk hetan asesu ba informasaun adekuadu no opsaun sira kona-ba saúde reprodutivu, no falta ne’e viola sira nia direitu tuir Konstituisaun no tuir polítika Governu nian. Governu anteriór sira seidauk implementa ho rigorozu Polítika Nasionál Planeamentu Familiar 2004 ho efetivu, no La’o Hamutuk husu Governu Konstitusionál Daualuk atu halo di’ak liután.

Iha 25 Jullu, Primeiru Ministru Timor-Leste nian, Taur Matan Ruak, iha nia diskursu bainhira simu pose, dehan katak oven Timor-Leste mak rikusoin prinsipál rai ne’e nian, nune’e ita presiza koko rezolve nesesidade saúde, edukasaun no asesu ba servisu sira. Fornese informasaun no oportunidade hanesan ba planeamentu familiar ba Timoroan hotu, la haree ba jéneru, idade, relijiaun, no munisípiu sira nudár kondisaun ba pasu esensiál dezenvolvimentu nian ne’ebé sustentável no ekitavel iha Timor-Leste.

Inclusive Family Planning Takes More Than Words On Paper

Family planning is the basic human right of all individuals to freely and responsibly determine when they want to have children, and how many they want to have. It is important to ensure that family planning is inclusive, meaning it includes all citizens regardless of gender, marital status, age, sexual orientation or religion. Family planning is one aspect of reproductive health, which is also comprised of:
  • HIV/AIDS prevention;
  • Prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases and infections;
  • Pre and post-natal care;
  • Sexual education and counselling especially for youths.
Some policy-makers view family planning from the perspective of economics, and conclude that better family planning slows population growth and increases wage and GDP. However, our own history of imposed ‘family planning’ as a measure of control under the Indonesian occupation, illuminates the dangers of framing family planning policies solely around economics and population control without viewing it as a human right. Today, Timor-Leste is an independent nation whose Constitution, article 57, guarantees universal, free health services to every citizen. To keep this promise, Timor-Leste must give our women and men the tools and resources we need to decide wisely about our own bodies and health.

La’o Hamutuk believes that family planning should be discussed openly and freely. If we frame the discussion solely around economics, we may forget that family planning is fundamentally about each woman’s right to make choices about her own body.

This article will discuss the importance of family planning in Timor-Leste, current policy, barriers to implementation and recommendations for the future.

Is Family Planning Important in Timor-Leste?

Family planning has recently been discussed more openly in Timor-Leste. It was a main policy recommendation of the United Nations Development Program’s 2018 National Human Development Report, which anticipates that wider use of family planning will decrease unemployment, and increase investment per capita, GDP and women’s life expectancy. The 2016 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) reports on how many people use family planning, what methods are being used, and how many people want access to family planning. Additionally, in June 2018, First Lady Cidalia Lopes Nobre Mouzinho Guterres discussed the importance of family planning on an international scale.

Family planning is a prerequisite for sustainable and inclusive development. Inclusive family planning will greatly improve maternal and infant health, empower women, increase levels of education, protect the environment, and reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. There will, of course, also be economic benefits such as increases to household income. Timor-Leste is a young country – 35% of our people are between 15-35 – and family planning will make their futures brighter based on their own choices.

The government of Timor-Leste is obliged by the Constitution to protect and care for all its citizens, regardless of gender, marital status, or religion. However, the implementation of the current Family Planning Policy has not included everyone, often leaves out young, rural and/or unmarried women. Family planning must be progressive and inclusive in practice, not just on paper.

Current Family Planning Policy and Implementation in Timor-Leste

In 2004, Timor-Leste adopted a National Family Planning Policy, which La’o Hamutuk considers both inclusive and progressive. This policy was developed after broad consultation and public debate, and has been embraced by many leaders in health, other sectors of government, and civil society, including religious leaders. The policy, which is still in place, states that reproductive health services should be “universally accessible, acceptable, convenient and available in an effective way at every health facility.” The policy states that all health facilities must provide reproductive services and counselling, including “an appropriate range of [contraceptive] methods” and “complete and accurate information about all methods” to all citizens, regardless of age, marital status, or gender.

Although the policy is better implemented today than it was 14 years ago, significant gaps and challenges remain. According to the 2016 DHS only 16.1% of women between 15-49 use some form of family planning, however this report is based on what women told the interviewers, and some may be embarrassed to share such information with a stranger. The graph below shows that injectables and implants are used much more than other methods.

No single method of family planning works best for everyone, since each method has its own benefits and drawbacks; therefore, La’o Hamutuk believes that everyone should have information and a full range of choices. The present dominance of injectables and implants suggests that many people are unaware of or unable to access other methods and options. The DHS reports that only approximately half of women using injectables (by far the most common family planning method), say that they decided to use them after being informed about potential side effects, what to do if they experience side effects, and what other methods are available.

According to the DHS, condom use remains low, with only 0.6% of respondents reporting using this method. This is not surprising when the public dialogue on condom use is stigmatizing and non-supportive. Family planning requires shared responsibility and decision making from both  men and women.

Further, it appears that vasectomy services are not available in Timor-Leste, due to a lack of equipment and skilled providers. This is a safe, simple and effective method of family planning.  Ignoring actions that men can take and their responsibilities in planning their families, places an unfair burden on women and allows men (including male politicians) to disregard family planning as a ‘women’s issue’.

Although the policy claims to be inclusive, young, unmarried and/or rural women often cannot access reproductive health services. According to the DHS, more than one-third of sexually active unmarried women say they want to use family planning, but only about half of these women have access to it. The 2016 DHS key findings, in line with global DHS reports, only present statistics on married women and their need for family planning, however it is important for influential reports, such as the DHS, to value and present unmarried women’s demand equally to help combat the stigma against them. Other important reports and surveys, such as the Census, should also add family planning components to their surveys so we can obtain a more complete picture of family planning in Timor-Leste.

Barriers to family planning in Timor-Leste

Every Timorese person has the right to decide which of the many family planning methods is best for them. Therefore, they must be informed about different family planning methods, including their benefits and risks. However cultural beliefs, which give more power to men in relationships, can restrict women’s ability to make these decisions themselves. Two recent studies, one on male attitudes to gender and the other on understanding violence against women, confirm that there is a continuing strong belief among both men and women that men should be the main decision makers in relationships. We must embrace and promote the cultural beliefs that empower women, and challenge those that disempower women, as an important step in providing family planning across the country.

Prominent educational campaigns led by the Catholic Church and other institutions have focused exclusively on traditional family planning methods. However, these campaigns have not persuaded many women to use these methods (see graph). This is not surprising considering that their effective use requires women and their partners to be able to read and do arithmetic, and to deeply understand their body and reproductive system; their sexual partners must also be open, communicative and supportive, which unfortunately is not the reality in most families.

Unfortunately, most young people have little information about reproductive health issues, and therefore cannot fully understand sexual health or make informed decisions about their bodies. For example, according to the DHS, only 23% of young women and 20% of young men say they have received information on reproductive health. Additionally, only 47% of women and 66% of men between 15-49 have heard of HIV or AIDS. Unfortunately, many teachers and parents avoid discussing topics which may feel embarrassing to them. Even though sex education is in the school curriculum, it is often skipped over. Therefore, many young people do not know how to avoid becoming pregnant or how to avoid, recognize, or treat sexually transmitted diseases.

Specific recommendations to the VIII Government

Next year, our Government will submit its fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The most recent CEDAW report, published in 2015, made the following recommendation to the Timor-Leste’s Government:
“Strengthen measures to ensure that all young women, adolescent girls and rural women have access to sexual and reproductive health services and emergency health care, and improve the quality of family planning services… irrespective of marital status.”

Drawing from and expanding on this recommendation, we urge the government to:
  • Continue and strengthen implementation of the 2004 National Family Planning Policy, so that what is good on paper can also be good in practice. Family planning is not mentioned in the VIII Government’s program, but it is a necessary condition for achieving the goals of the Health Sector Strategic Development Plan 2011-2030, which aims to “increase access to and demand for high-quality ante-natal care, childbirth, postnatal care and family planning, including difficult access.”

  • The 2018 State Budget allocated $43,000 to the Ministry of Health’s “maternal and reproductive health services including family planning”, which was reduced by nearly half from the 2017 Budget. La’o Hamutuk encourages the government to increase this allocation in the 2019 budget.
        Include specific and detailed programs for family planning in the Ministry of Health Action Plans, the Government Program, and the 2019 State Budget, the Government must ensure that there is adequate leadership, planning and budget to ensure proper implementation of this important policy.

  • The Ministry of Health should invest more in providing health officials with the information, skills and resources they need to provide genuine and informed options to all Timorese, both men and women, married and unmarried, young and old, urban and rural. There should be special attention to promoting men’s shared responsibility for contraception (including condoms and vasectomies), and to sensitizing and educating men about their obligations related to family planning. The Ministry must ensure that implementation of policy does not discriminate against anyone.

  • The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education and the National Commission to Combat HIV/AIDS should ensure their public messages and discussions about family planning are inclusive, positive, supportive and rights-based. The goal is to empower all people to make appropriate and responsible decisions about their individual and family health, based on accurate and clear information.

  • The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health should continue the important collaboration they have started to ensure that reproductive health and sex education are taught in schools and teachers are mandated, capable, and confident to discuss this topic with students.

Conclusion

Timorese women and men do not yet have adequate information or choices about reproductive health, which violates their rights as outlined by the Constitution and by government policy. Past governments have not implemented the 2004 National Family Planning Policy effectively, and La’o Hamutuk calls on the Eighth Constitutional Government to do better. 

On 25 July, Timor-Leste’s Prime Minister, Taur Matan Ruak, in his speech to the newly sworn-in members of Parliament, emphasized that the youth of Timor-Leste are our greatest asset, and we must address their needs with regards to health, education, and employment. Providing family planning information and opportunities to every Timorese person – regardless of age, gender, religion, or region – is an essential condition for, sustainable, equitable development in Timor-Leste.